Indwara ya streptococcal’ yibasiye abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu ihagaze ite mu Rwanda

Indwara ya ‘streptococcal’ izwi nka gapfura mu Kinyarwanda abantu benshi bakunze kwita ‘angine’, bimaze kugaragara ko yibasiye abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu y’amavuko nubwo hari abantu bakuru nabo bayirwara.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS) n’Ikigo cy’i Burayi gishinzwe gukumira no kurwanya indwara (ECDC) batanze impuruza kuri iyi ndwara basa abatuye isi ko bakomeza kuba maso ku bijyanye n’indwara zikomeye zatewe n’itsinda A streptococcale mu bana.

Ubufaransa, Irilande, Ubuholandi, Espagne, Suwede n’Ubwongereza byatangaje ko umubare w’abarwara iyi ndwara ya gapfura wiyongereyeho umubare w’abantu banduye indwara zikomeye zizwi ku izina rya infrative group streptococcal infection. A (IISGA) mu bana bari munsi yimyaka 10 muri 2022.

Muri iyi myaka hagaragaye impfu nyinshi zijyanye n’izi ndwara. Mu Bwongereza no mu Bufaransa, umubare w’abantu bakomeye nawo wikubye inshuro nyinshi ugereranije no mu gihe kimwe cyabanjirije icyorezo cya covid19.

Indwara ya gapfura ishobora kuvurwa n’imiti yoroheje ya antibiotike igakira, ariko mu bihe igihe itavujwe hakiri kare ishobora gutera ingorane zikomeye.

Ubwoko bwa gapfura

Hashingiwe ku byavuye mu bushakashatsi bw’ibanze, impuguke za OMS zemeza ko kwiyongera bidatewe no kugaragara k’ ubwoko bushya bwa streptococcus A, cyangwa no kurwanya antibiyotike.

Uku kuzamuka bishoboka ko byatewe n’impamvu zitandukanye. Umubare w’indwara zikomeye nazo zishobora kuba nyinshi bitewe n’ ikwirakwira ry’izindi virusi nyinshi, hamwe na streptococci, byongera indwara. N’ubwo impuguke za OMS zibona ko ingaruka ku baturage muri rusange ziri hasi kugeza ubu, ariko basabye ibihugu by’Uburayi kuba maso kuko aribyo byibasiwe kurusha ibindi bice by’isi.

Indwara ya gapfura ihagaze gute mu Rwanda?

Amakuru atangazwa n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cyita ku buzima (RBC), agaragaa ko mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe ku ndwara ya gapfura bugashyirwa ahagaragara mu 2020, ibyavuyemo bigaragaza ko umubare munini w’abayirwaye ari abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu y’amavuko.

Uko indwara ya gapfura ihagaze mu Ntara z’Igihugu

Umubare munini w’abanduye wari mu barwayi bari munsi y’imyaka 5 (17/68; 25%) bakurikirwa n’imyaka 6-10 (14/68; 20, 6%).

Uko imibare y’abarwara gapfura yari ihagaze muri 2020
Uko gapfura ihagaze mu Rwanda hakurikijwe ibyiciro by’imyaka abantu bafite

Gapfura ni indwara iterwa na bagiteri igafata mu muhogo

Izi virusi zitera uburibwe bwinshi, uwamaze kuzandura akaba aribwa cyane mu muhogo bikaba binatera ‘infection’ mu muhogo na toniilles iterwa na bagiteri yitwa itsinda A Streptococcus (itsinda A strep).

Ibimenyetso bya gapfura

Kubabara, umuriro, ariko nta nkorora. Muri rusange, umuhogo ugira infection yoroheje, ariko ishobora kubabaza cyane. Ibimenyetso bikunze kugaragara mu muhogo harimo:

  • Kubabara mu muhogo bishobora gutangira vuba cyane
  • Kubabara iyo umira
  • Kubyimba ururimi cyangwa rukasesaho uduheri tubabaza
  • Umuriro
  • Gucira igikororwa gitukura kandi cy’ikibumbe, rimwe na rimwe gifite ibara ryera cyangwa ukabona harimo uturongo dusa n’ibara ryijimye
  • Kugira utubyimba duto dutukura mu rusenge rw’akanwa
  • Uduturugunyu tuza mu muhogo abeshi bita ibiswaganga, amasazi cyangwa intobo
  • Gusesa ibiheri ku mubiri bamwe bakunze kwita ibituri
Uwafashwe na gapfura abyimba mu muhogo n’ururimi kuburyo atabasha kumira

Ibindi bimenyetso bishobora kubamo kubabara umutwe, kubabara mu gifu, isesemi, cyangwa kuruka cyane cyane ku bana. Umuntu urwaye gapfura ashobora no kugira uburibwe; bizwi nka feri itukura.

Ibimenyetso bimwe byerekana virusi itera gapfura aho kuba itsinda A ry’uruhurirane rw’amavirus.

Ibimenyetso bikurikira bikurikira byerekana ko virusi ari yo nyirabayazana w’iyi ndwara aho kuba ikibazo cyo mu muhogo:

  • Inkorora
  • Amazuru atemba (guhoboba)
  • Gutontoma (impinduka mumajwi yawe ituma yumvikana neza, yuzuye, cyangwa iremereye)
  • Indwara ya Conjunctivitis
  • Gusesa ibiheri bini ku mubiri

Uko wakwirinda gapfura ukayirinda n’abandi

Abantu bashobora kurwara gapfura inshuro zirenze imwe. Mu gihe nta rukingo rwo gukumira gapfura, hari ibintu abantu bashobora gukora kugirango birinde ndetse barinde n’abandi.

Ikintu cy’ingeni mu kwirinda kurwara cyangwa gukwirakwiza gapfura (itsinda A umurongo), ni ugukaraba intoki kenshi. Ibi ni ngombwa cyane cyane nyuma yo gukorora cyangwa kwitsamura na mbere yo gutegura ibyo kurya cyangwa kurya.

Uko wakwitwara igihe urwaye gapfura

  • Gupfuka umunwa n’amazuru hamwe n’ umuswaro cyangwa akandi gatambaro k’isuku urimo gukoresha mu gihe ukorora cyangwa unyeganyega.
  • Shyira agatambaro wakoresheje mu giseke cy’imyanda niba ari agatambaro k’isuku gakoreshwa insure imwe (tissue).
  • Mesa agatambaro wakoresheje wifashishije amazi meza n’isabune, niba bishoboka mbere yo kongera kugakoresha ubanze ugatere ipasi.
  • Igihe ukorora cyangwa kwitsamura, wishyiraho, ahubwo kingaho ukuboko uhiniye mu nkokora, niba udafite agatambaro cyangwa urupapuro rw’isuku (tissue).
  • Gukaraba intoki kenshi ukoresheje isabune n’amazi byibuze amasegonda 20.
Urwaye gapfura ashobora gusesa ibiheri binini kandi bibabaza ku mubiri

Ugomba kandi koza ibirahuri, ibikoresho, n’amasahani nyuma y’uko umuntu urwaye gapfura abikoresheje. Ibi bikoresho bifite umutekano ku bandi babikoresha iyo byogejwe neza kuko badashobora kwandura.

Gapfura ni imwe mu ndwara ziterwa na streptococci yanduza umuntu ikaba iterwa na bagiteri zikunze kugaragara mu turere dushyuha. Indwara nyinshi zituruka ku ndwara ziterwa n’itsinda A streptococci; izo ndwara zikaba zirashobora no gutera indwara ya rubagimpande na glomerulonephritis ikaze. Kugeza ubu, nta rukingo rw’indwara ya gapfura ruraboneka.

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