October 16, 2021

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Sobanukirwa “depression”, indwara yo kwiheba no kwigunga, ibimenyetso ndetse n’uburyo ivurwa.

YASUWE 99 

Buri wese muri twe hari igihe yumva afite agahinda. Icyakora indwara yo kwiheba yo ni indwara ica umuntu intege, ikamubangamira muri gahunda ze za buri munsi. Gusa abahanga ntibavuga rumwe ku birebana no kumenya niba umuntu afite agahinda “gasanzwe” cyangwa niba arwaye “indwara” yo kwiheba. Icyakora, hari abantu bahorana ibyiyumvo bibi, bakumva biyanze kandi umutimanama wabo ukababuza amahwemo.

Bamwe babasha kwihangana abandi bigahinduka uburwayi bubabaho karande ku buryo hakenerwa uburyo bunyuranye mu kubavura. Iyo byamaze kugera kuri urwo rwego rero niho havugwa ko umuntu afite uburwayi bwo kwiheba no kwigunga aribyo tumenyereye ku izina rya depression.

Ikigo gishinzwe kugenzura indwara (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, “CDC”, gitangaza ko abantu bari hejuru y’Imyaka 12 byibuze abarenga 7% bagira iki kibazo.

Nkuko ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima (WHO) ribivuga kandi, depression ni indwara rusange ku isi kandi ikaba iteza ubumuga bunyuranye uyirwaye. Bivugwa ko ku isi yose abasaga miliyoni 350 bayirwaye ku isi yose.

Ese kwigunga”Depression” ni iki?

Iyi ni indwara iri mu cyiciro cy’indwara zo mu mutwe. Ni indwara itera imikorere y’ubwonko guhinduka aho umuntu aba yumva atishimiye ibimubaho akiheba akigunga kandi akumva ntacyo amaze mu muryango, muri macye akipfobya.

Ibi ariko binyuranye na kwa kundi ushobora kumva muri wowe utanyuzwe, cyangwa utishimye by’igihe gito kuko byitwa depression iyo bigeze mu mezi hagati ya 6 na 8 nta gihinduka.

Umuntu urwaye iyi ndwara, kuri we yumva ntacyo amaze mu bandi.

No gupfusha uwawe cyangwa kugira igihombo gikabije cyangwa kwirukanwa ku kazi iyo ubashije kubyakira ntabwo biba ari depression.

Ese Depression iterwa n’iki?

Ibitera iyi ndwara si bimwe ku bantu bose kandi akenshi usanga ari uruhurirane ku muntu. Muri byo twavuga

  • Akoko
  • Imikorere ihindagurika mu mubiri
  • Aho uri
  • Ibikubaho n’abakuzengurutse

Abantu bamwe baba bafite ibyago byinshi kurenza abandi bitewe n’impamvu zikurikira

  • Ibikubaho mu buzima: ubukene, kwirukanwa ku kazi, gutandukana n’uwo mwashakanye cg uwo mwakundanye cyane
  • Ubuzima bwite: kutabasha kwesa imihigo wiyemeje
  • Aho uvuka: kuba mu muryango wa hafi harimo uwahuye n’icyo kibazo
  • Kuba waragize ihungabana ukiri umwana
  • Imiti imwe n’imwe: harimo corticosteroids, beta-blockers, interferon na reserpine
  • Gukoresha cyane ibiyobyabwenge
  • Kuba warakomeretse mu mutwe
  • Indwara zidakira nka diyabete, indwara z’ibihaha, indwara z’umutima

Dore Ibimenyetso bya depression:

Ibimenyetso by’iyi ndwara ni bimwe mu bikurikira;

  • Kwiheba no kwigunga
  • Kutongera kunezezwa n’ibyagushimishaga, kutishimira gukora imibonano
  • Gutakaza ibiro ku buryo budasobanutse, no kugira ikizibakanwa
  • Kubura ibitotsi cyangwa gusinzira cyane
  • Gutinda gusubiza no gucika intege mu mubiri no mu mikorere
  • Kumva nta gaciro ufite no kwiciraho iteka
  • Gufata imyanzuro itari yo no gutekereza nabi
  • Kumva ntacyo ukimaze ukifuza cyangwa ukagerageza kwiyahura

Hari n’ibibonwa na muganga cyangwa abakuri hafi nko:

  • Guhorana amarira mu maso, no kwijima isura byerekana agahinda cyangwa kwiheba
  • Kutabasha gutumbira umuntu mu maso
  • Impinduka mu mikorere n’imivugire aho usanga ukoresha ijambo rimwe gusa: yego, oya, simbizi, urakoze, n’andi
  • Guhindura imyitwarire, kutongera gutera urwenya, kurakazwa n’ubusa, kunenga abandi cyane no kwigaya, kimwe no kujya impaka bidasanzwe.

Uko iyi ndwara ivurwa

Iyi ni indwara ivurwa igakira neza kandi. Mu kuyivura hakoreshwa uburyo 3 bunyuranye:

  • Ubufasha: ubu ni ubufasha buhabwa ababana n’umurwayi ndetse bukanahabwa we bwite. Ni ubufasha bujyana no kubaganiriza ku bibazo bihari ndetse n’uburyo bashobora kubisohokamo, ndetse n’uburyo bakirinda ikibongerera stress. Ibi bikorwa mu buryo bw’ibiganiro.
  • Kuganiriza umurwayi: ibi bizwi nka psychotherapy. Ni ukuganira n’umurwayi, bikorwa n’umuganga wize ibijyanye n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe (psychologist). Akenshi ubu buryo nibwo bwiza kuko ntibukoresha imiti. Aganira n’umurwayi, akamubwira uko ameze, aho bishobora gukorwa amaso ku maso, kuri telephone cyangwa se bikaba byanakorwa mu matsinda. Mu kuganira uvura agerageza gutuma uwo avura amwiyumvamo noneho akirekura akamubwira. Niyo uvura yaba atarize ibyerekeye ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, ariko byibuze agomba kuba ari umuntu uzi guhumuriza abababaye, rimwe na rimwe ashobora no kwigira nk’aho nawe yahuye nicyo kibazo, byereka umurwayi ko Atari we gusa bibaho, kandi ko gukira bishoboka.
kuganiriza umurwayi no kumuba hafi ukamuhumuriza ni wo muti wa mbere
  • Iyo ibi ntacyo bitanze hitabazwa imiti yagenewe gutuma umurwayi atuza, ikaba imiti itangwa na muganga gusa, bivuze ko utemerewe kuba wayigurira utayandikiwe. Muganga niwe uhitamo iyo wafata bitewe nuko abona umerewe, n’icyaguteye kurwara. Imiti itangwa iri mu matsinda anyuranye, aho ushobora guhabwa imiti yo mu matsinda 2 cyangwa ugahabwa ubwoko bumwe gusa bitewe n’uburemere bw’indwara. Ikunze gukoreshwa cyane ni iyo mu itsinda rya SSRI aho twavuga Citalopram (Celexa), Escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex), Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox) na Sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral). Gusa bisaba gukurikirana umurwayi uri gufata iyi miti kuko mu minsi ya mbere iyi miti ishobora kukongerera ibyifuzo byo kuba wakiyahura, cyane cyane ku bakiri bato.

Yanditswe na Theophile Bravery, umunyamakuru wa Rwandanews24.