October 20, 2021

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Lumumba: Isoko y’ imigani ikomeye

YASUWE 20 

Abamwishe urubozo bashobora kuba baramwishe hanyuma bagashongesha  umubiri we muri acide sulfurike, nyuma yimyaka 60 aburiwe irengero, Patrice Lumumba ntabwo yigeze asa nkaho ari mu bitekerezo no mu mitima. Lumumba, igishushanyo mbonera cy’umugabane wose, ni umugani wubatswe mu myaka yashize, cyane cyane ku kigero cyo kuvumbura abahanga mu by’amateka ku buryo yakurikiranwe hanyuma akavaho.

Ku nkomoko y’umugani wa Lumumba, birumvikana ko hari iri jambo ryatanzwe ku munsi w’ubwigenge bwa Kongo. Mu byukuri, kuva mu Kwakira 1958 n’ishyirwaho rya MNC, umutwe w’abenegihugu b’Abanyekongo, icyamamare kavukire wa Onalua muri Sankuru, cyakomeje kwiyongera. Binyuze muri charisma, inshinga ye hamwe numwanya we ukomeye, autodidact yumusore irekura irari. Ni iki kimushimisha cyane? Icyifuzo cye cyo guhindura Congo igihugu cyunze ubumwe kandi cyigenga. Uruhare rwe mu Kuboza 1958 mu nama y’abaturage ba Pan-African, yateguwe i Accra na Kwane Nkrumah, binamwemerera kugaragara nk’umuyobozi w’Afurika. Niba yaratsindiye icyubahiro cyera muri Kamena 1960 afata umwanya wa Minisitiri w’intebe w’igihugu – nyuma yuko ishyaka rye ritsinze amatora y’abadepite muri Gicurasi – ni bwo yatanze ijambo rye ku ya 30 Kamena 1960 ni bwo yabonye a igihagararo mpuzamahanga.

Ku Mwami Baudoin ushima, kuri uyu munsi w’ubwigenge, ibikorwa by’Ububiligi kandi akabona muri ubwo bwigenge “indunduro y’imirimo yatekerejwe n’umuhanga w’umwami Leopold II” – kandi imbere y’ijambo rito cyane kuri amaso ye ya Perezida Joseph Kasa-Vubu – umuyobozi w’igihugu arasubiza n’amagambo atera kandi yumvikana mu mitima y’Abanyekongo: “Byagenze bite mu myaka 80 y’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni, ibikomere byacu ni bishya kandi birababaza cyane ko dushobora kubirukana kutwibuka. Ubu bwigenge bwa Kongo, nibutangazwa uyu munsi byumvikanyweho n’Ububiligi, igihugu cy’inshuti dufata nk’abandi, nta Munyekongo ukwiye izina uzigera yibagirwa, ariko, ko binyuze mu rugamba ko yatsinzwe. Urugamba tutarinze imbaraga zacu, cyangwa ibyo twiherereye, cyangwa imibabaro yacu, cyangwa amaraso yacu. ”

Ijambo ryashimiwe inshuro nyinshi n’imbaga yari iteraniye hanze yingoro yigihugu (ikurikira ijambo binyuze mu ndangururamajwi). Imbere mu cyumba, Umwami Baudoin arwana no guhisha uburakari bwe. “Ijambo rye, aho yamaganaga igihe cy’abakoloni nk’igihe cy’ubucakara, ryabaye imvugo y’ikigereranyo igaragara mu kurwanya iri jambo ubusanzwe rifatwa nk’ububyeyi n’umwami Baudoin”, ryandika amateka y’amateka y’Ababiligi, Emmanuel Gérard, inzobere muri decolonisation ya Kongo. “Mu ijambo rye, yamaze kuba icyo gihe ubwoko bw’ishusho y’umutwe wo kwibohora w’isi ya gatatu”.

Ibigirwamana na bamwe, Lumumba icyarimwe yamaganwe kandi yatewe n’abadayimoni nabakinnyi benshi b’imbere n’ab’imbere. Umuyobozi ukiri muto arashinjwa uburakari, bwiswe ko ari umukomunisiti, ijambo ryangwa mu gihe cy’intambara y’ubutita. Mu bamutera, harimo cyane cyane uwahoze ari umukoloni w’Ababiligi. Umwami Baudoin, guverinoma… bose bamugaragaza nk’umwanzi uteje akaga. Muri Kanama 1960,  mu Bubiligi, umwarimu wa filozofiya y’imyitwarire Marcel De Corte yahamagariye “ibimenyetso bya kigabo bizabohora umubumbe w’amaraso”. Agira ati: “Nyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi, habaye kandi ikinyamakuru muri L’Echo de la Bourse, ikinyamakuru cy’isi y’imari y’Ububiligi, cyavuze ko byaba ari uburyarya buke kuvuga ngo” twababajwe n’ubwo bwicanyi “”. Umushakashatsi w’Umubiligi Ludo de Vitte, umwanditsi w’ubwicanyi bwa Lumumba, igitabo kivuga kuri iyo ngingo. Mu byukuri byari igihe iyi dayimoni ya Lumumba yafataga ibintu bikabije. Umunyamakuru w’ikinyamakuru ibumoso buri cyumweru yanditse, burya, ko atazi neza ko Hitler mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi Yose yafashwe n’uburakari bwinshi mu binyamakuru nk’uko yari kumwe na Patrice Lumumba “.

Nyuma yo kubura kwe, ingufu za congo – zagize uruhare runini mu kurandura – zirashaka guhindura page Lumumba. Umuhanga mu by’amateka wo muri Kongo, Isidore Ndaywel, yibuka ati: “Ndabyibuka neza nkiri muto: urubyiruko rwatawe muri yombi kubera kwambara ihene.” Byari bimeze nka Lumumba. Kandi ibyo byari bimaze kuba ikimenyetso cyimyigaragambyo ishobora kudutera ibibazo na polisi. Mu gihe kirekire rero cyari ikintu cyihishe. ” Jenerali Mobutu ashobora gutangaza ko Lumumba mu 1966 ari “intwari y’igihugu”, ku ngoma ye birabujijwe kuvuga kuri iyi mibare y’ubwigenge. Ibintu ntabwo byahindutse kugeza mu mpera za 90 hamwe no kugwa kwa Mobutu Sese Seko, Laurent-Désiré Kabila akaza ku butegetsi. Lumumba noneho agarura umwanya we nk’intwari y’igihugu. Umushinga w’urwibutso mu cyubahiro cye i Kinshasa, watangijwe na Mobutu, amaherezo wabonye izuba muri Mutarama 2002.

Mu Bubiligi, bizatwara indi myaka mike mbere yuko ishusho yayo ihinduka. Ubwo yageraga mu Bubiligi mu 2004 avuye i Togo, Kalvin Soiresse Njall yatunguwe no kubona ko umuyobozi wa pan-African yamenyekanye cyane mu basore bakomoka muri Afro ndetse no mu banyeshuri bakomoka mu Burayi. “Umwe muri icumi yari azi neza Lumumba uwo ari we. Hariho kandi n’abantu batari bafite isura nziza cyane kuri we, harimo no kurwego rwabanyafurika, bagereranya uwari umwungirije ushinzwe ibidukikije. Muri bo, harimo abakomoka mu miryango yabaga ku butegetsi bwa Mobutiste kandi bakoranye n’ubu butegetsi. Kandi ndagira ngo mbabwire ko ihererekanyabubasha muri iyi miryango ryerekanaga Lumumba nkumuntu udahubuka, ufite amahirwe. Mubyukuri, imyumvire poropagande ya gikoloni yashyize ku mitwe y’abantu haba muri Kongo ndetse no mu Bubiligi ”.

Ibyatangajwe n’umushakashatsi w’Ababiligi Ludo de Vitte ku ruhare rw’Ububiligi mu iyicwa rye hanyuma imirimo ya komisiyo y’inteko ishinga amategeko ishinzwe iperereza ku rupfu rwe byatumye abantu babimenya bwa mbere. Ibikorwa byakozwe n’amashyirahamwe yitwara gisirikare bizakora ibisigaye. Hamwe na Mémoire Coloniale et Lutte contre les Ivangura yashinze mu 2012, Kalvin Soiresse Njall yagize uruhare muri uku gusubiza mu buzima busanzwe. Ati: “Mu rubyiruko rwo muri Afurika, ni umuntu utoza. Ni ishusho nka Thomas Sankara, nka Kwame Nkrumah n’abandi bagaragara nk’imwe mu ntwari za Pan-Africanism, uyu munsi acira inteko ishinga amategeko wiyita “lumumbiste”. Ni iki gikundira Lumumba? “Ubunyangamugayo bwe no hejuru ya byose, ikiruta byose, ikiruta byose, bidashoboka kumwangiriza.”

Ishusho yintangarugero idasobanura byose. Kuki Patrice Lumumba nyuma yimyaka 60 yaburiwe irengero? Umuhanga mu by’amateka Isidore Ndaywel avuga ko kubera kunanirwa kwa politiki yakurikijwe kuva ubwigenge. “Amaherezo twabonye ko Afurika nyuma y’ubukoloni yahindutse nabi ku buryo dusubira ku gitekerezo cya mbere, cyari icyifuzo cya ba se b’ubwigenge, nk’uko uwigisha muri kaminuza abibona. Kinshasa. Naho ku bijyanye na Kongo no muri Afurika nyinshi mu majyepfo ya Sahara, igitekerezo cy’umuntu nka Lumumba “.

Ikindi kintu gisobanura gukundwa kwe: uburyo yakurikiranwe hanyuma akavaho. “Ni ukwihorera gukomeye! Ku muntu wagombaga kuzimira kandi mu by’ukuri akaba atakibara, birananirana “, nk’uko byavuzwe n’umuhanga mu by’amateka Karine Ramondy, umwanditsi w’abayobozi biciwe muri Afurika yo hagati, 1958-1961.

Ubu ni bwo burebure bw’icyuma: mu kumukurikirana, kumwica hanyuma ukangiza umubiri we, abanzi be n’abiyica urubozo rwose bagize uruhare mu kurema no gukomeza umugani wa Lumumba. “Ni umumaritiri rwose, c ‘nukuvuga, ntanubwo dusiga ibahasha yumubiri. Hariho rwose gupfa-gusobanura rwose gusobanura impamvu iyi shusho ikiri isoko yintangarugero kubacuranzi benshi, abarangi n’abashushanya ibyuka bibuka muri iki gihe. Bamwe muribo muburyo bwa messi “.